Dr. CHU Hin


BS (University of Wisconsin - Madison); PhD (Emory University)


Assistant Professor, Department of Microbiology

Email: hinchu@hku.hk


ORCID : https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2855-9837


Google Scholar : https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=C_8ayvcAAAAJ&hl=en



Dr. Chu focuses on investigating the host and viral determinants of emerging viral infection and pathogenesis, with an emphasis on highly pathogenic coronaviruses. He has authored 128 publications with 50 of them as first/co-first or corresponding author (Google Scholar: h-index 45; Citation 22,746), including last corresponding authored publication in Nature. According to Clarivate Analytics' Essential Science Indicators, Dr. Chu is ranked as one of the world's top 1% scholars by citations and as a "Highly Cited Researcher" in 2021. His research is well supported by competitive grants including RGC-GRF, HMRF, NSFC, RGC-CRF, TRS, and Health@InnoHK. As a recognition of Dr. Chu’s track record on coronaviruses, he was awarded the NSFC-Excellent Young Scientist Fund (Hong Kong and Macau) in 2021.


Research Interests:

• Coronaviruses including SARS-CoV-2, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-1
• Virus-host interactions
   o What host factors can coronaviruses use for virus entry?
   o What host factors can coronaviruses use to promote virus replication?
   o What are the mechanisms that allow SARS-CoV-2 to spread more efficiently than SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV?

• Viral pathogenesis
   o How do the highly pathogenic coronaviruses cause severe diseases in humans?
   o How do the highly pathogenic coronaviruses cause cell/tissue damage?
   o What are the mechanisms behind the differential pathogenicity between SARS-CoV-2, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-1?
   o What are the determinants in the SARS-CoV-2 variants that dictate their differential  transmissibility/pathogenicity in vivo?

2021: Clarivate Analytics Essential Science Indicators (ESI) Highly Cited Researcher

   - One of 31 scholars at HKU in 2021
   - https://www.hku.hk/press/news_detail_23587.html

2021: Clarivate Analytics Essential Science Indicators (ESI) top 1% cited scholar

   - http://hub.hku.hk/local/top1pc/top1pc.jsp

2021: National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) Excellent Young Scientists Award (Hong Kong and Macau)

   - The only scholar at HKUMed in 2021
   - https://www.hku.hk/press/c_news_detail_23146.html

2021: HKU Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine 2021 Research Output Price (as co-first author)

   - http://www.rss.hku.hk/honours-awards/internal-awards/rop-winners

2021: Emerging Microbes & Infections 2020 Best Paper Award (1st Place) (as co-first author)

Joining our team:
We are looking for motivated individuals to join us as post-doctoral fellows, MPhil/PhD students, or research assistants. Interested candidates please send a cover letter detailing your research interests and CV to Hin Chu (hinchu@hku.hk).

Selected Publications:


1. Chu H, Hou Y, Yang D, Wen L, Shuai H, Yoon C, Shi J, Chai Y, Yuen TT, Hu B, Li C, Zhao X, Wang Y, Huang X, Lee KS, Luo C, Cai JP, Poon VK, Chan CC, Zhang AJ, Yuan S, Sit KY, Foo DC, Au WK, Wong KK, Zhou J, Kok KH, Jin DY, Chan JF, Yuen KY. Coronaviruses exploit a host cysteine-aspartic protease for replication. Nature. 2022 August 3. doi: 10.1038/s41586-022-05148-4. [IF: 69.504]

2. Yuen TT, Chan JF, Yan B, Shum CC, Liu Y, Shuai H, Hou Y, Huang X, Hu B, Chai Y, Yoon C, Zhu T, Liu H, Shi J, Zhang J, Cai JP, Zhang AJ, Zhou J, Yin F, Yuan S, Zhang BZ, Chu H. Targeting ACLY efficiently inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication. Int J Biol Sci. 2022 Jul 11;18(12):4714-4730. [IF: 10.750]

3. Chu H, Yuen KY. Pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron. Clin Transl Med. 2022 May;12(5):e880. [IF: 8.554]

4. Chan JF, Chu H. Pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.1.1 in hamsters. EBioMedicine. 2022 Apr 28;80:104035. [IF: 11.205]

5. Zhang BZ, Shuai H, Gong HR, Hu JC, Yan B, Yuen TT, Hu YF, Yoon C, Wang XL, Hou Y, Lin X, Huang X, Li R, Au-Yeung YM, Li W, Hu B, Chai Y, Yue M, Cai JP, Ling GS, Hung IF, Yuen KY, Chan JF, Huang JD, Chu H. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin-induced trained immunity protects against SARS-CoV-2 challenge in K18-hACE2 mice. JCI Insight. 2022 Apr 21:e157393. doi: 10.1172/jci.insight.157393. [IF: 9.484]

6. Quan BX, Shuai H, Xia AJ, Hou Y, Zeng R, Liu XL, Lin GF, Qiao JX, Li WP, Wang FL, Wang K, Zhou RJ, Yuen TT, Chen MX, Yoon C, Wu M, Zhang SY, Huang C, Wang YF, Yang W, Tian C, Li WM, Wei YQ, Yuen KY, Chan JF, Lei J, Chu H# (co-corresponding author), Yang S#. An orally available Mpro inhibitor is effective against wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and variants including Omicron. Nat Microbiol. 2022 Apr 27. doi: 10.1038/s41564-022-01119-7. [IF: 30.964]

7. Chu H, Chan JF, Yuen KY. Animal models in SARS-CoV-2 research. Nat Methods. 2022 Apr;19(4):392-394. [IF: 47.990]

8. Shuai H, Chan JF, Hu B, Chai Y, Yuen TT, Yin F, Huang X, Yoon C, Hu JC, Liu H, Shi J, Liu Y, Zhu T, Zhang J, Hou Y, Wang Y, Lu L, Cai JP, Zhang AJ, Zhou J, Yuan S, Brindley MA, Zhang BZ, Huang JD, To KK, Yuen KY, Chu H. Attenuated replication and pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 Omicron. Nature. 2022 Jan 21. doi: 10.1038/s41586-022-04442-5. [IF: 69.504]

9. Zhang X*, Chu H* (co-first author), Chik KK*, Wen L, Shuai H, Yang D, Wang Y, Hou Y, Yuen TT, Cai JP, Yuan S, Yin F, Yuen KY, Chan JF. hnRNP C modulates MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 replication by governing the expression of a subset of circRNAs and cognitive mRNAs. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2022 Dec;11(1):519-531. [IF: 19.568]

10. Chen Y, Li C, Liu F, Ye Z, Song W, Lee ACY, Shuai H, Lu L, To KK, Chan JF, Zhang AJ, Chu H# (co-corresponding author), Yuen KY. Age-associated SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infection and changes in immune response in mouse model. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2022 Jan 6;1-36. [IF: 19.568]



11. Shuai H, Chan JF, Yuen TT, Yoon C, Hu JC, Wen L, Hu B, Yang D, Wang Y, Hou Y, Huang X, Chai Y, Chan CC, Poon VK, Lu L, Zhang RQ, Chan WM, Ip JD, Chu AW, Hu YF, Cai JP, Chan KH, Zhou J, Sridhar S, Zhang BZ, Yuan S, Zhang AJ, Huang JD, To KK, Yuen KY, Chu H. Emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants expand species tropism to murines. EBioMedicine. 2021 Oct 21;73:103643. [IF: 11.205]

12. Li W, Wang Y, Tang X, Yuen TT, Han X, Li J, Huang N, Chan JF, Chu H# (co-corresponding author), Wang L#. Liquid Repellency Enabled Anti-Pathogen Coatings. Mater Today Bio. 2021 Oct 7;100145. [IF: 10.761]

13. Deng J*, Zhang BZ*, Chu H* (co-first author), Wang XL, Wang Y, Gong HR, Li R, Yang D, Li C, Dou Y, Gao P, Cai JP, Jin M, Du Q, Chan JF, Kao RY, Yuen KY, Huang JD. Adenosine synthase A contributes to recurrent Staphylococcus aureus infection by dampening protective immunity. EBioMedicine. 2021 Jul 28;70:103505. [IF: 11.205]

14. Xie D*, Chu H* (co-first author), Yang D*, Ding Q, Huang G, Chen L, Cai Z, Huang J, Zhao Z. A stark difference in the profiles of defective viral transcripts between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV. J Infect. 2021 Jun 30:S0163-4453(21)00315-7. [IF: 38.637]

15. Chu H*, Shuai H*, Hou Y, Zhang X, Wen L, Huang X, Hu B, Yang D, Wang Y, Yoon C, Wong BH, Li C, Zhao X, Poon VK, Cai JP, Wong KK, Yeung ML, Zhou J, Au-Yeung RK, Yuan S, Jin DY, Kok KH, Perlman S, Chan JF, Yuen KY. Targeting highly pathogenic coronavirus-induced apoptosis reduces viral pathogenesis and disease severity. Sci Adv. 2021 June 16;7(25):eabf8577. [IF: 14.957]

16. Chu H, Chan JF. A lethal mouse model using a mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2 strain with enhanced binding to mouse ACE2 as an important platform for COVID-19 research. EBioMedicine. 2021 May 25;68:103406. [IF: 11.205]

17. Zhu P*, Wang Y*, Chu H# (co-corresponding author), Wang L#. Superhydrophobicity preventing surface contamination as a novel strategy against COVID-19. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2021 May 11;600:613-619. [IF: 9.965]

18. Yang D*, Chu H* (co-first author), Lu G, Shuai H, Wang Y, Hou Y, Zhang X, Huang X, Hu B, Chai Y, Yuen TT, Zhao X, Lee AC, Ye Z, Li C, Chik KK, Zhang AJ, Zhou J, Yuan S, Chan JF. STAT2-dependent restriction of Zika virus by human macrophages but not dendritic cells. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2021 May 12:1-42. [IF: 19.568]

19. Huang L*, Yuen TT*, Ye Z*, Liu S*, Zhang G, Chu H# (co-corresponding author), Yue J#. Berbamine inhibits SARS-CoV-2 infection by compromising TRPMLs-mediated endolysosomal trafficking of ACE2. Signal Transduct Target Ther. 2021. Apr 24;6:168. [IF: 38.104]

20. Chu H*, Hu B*, Huang X*, Chai Y*, Zhou D, Wang Y, Shuai H, Yang D, Hou Y, Zhang X, Yuen TT, Cai JP, Zhang AJ, Zhou J, Yuan S, To KK, Chan IH, Sit KY, Foo DC, Wong IY, Ng AT, Cheung TT, Law S, Au WK, Brindley MA, Chen Z, Kok KH, Chan JF, Yuen KY. Host and viral determinants for efficient SARS-CoV-2 infection of the human lung. Nat Commun. 2021 Jan 8;12(1):134. [IF: 17.694]


21. Chu H*, Chan JF*, Wang Y*, Yuen TT*, Chai Y, Shuai H, Yang D, Hu B, Huang X, Zhang X, Hou Y, Cai JP, Zhang AJ, Zhou J, Yuan S, To KK, Hung IF, Cheung TT, Ng AT, Chan IH, Wong IY, Law SY, Foo DC, Leung WK, Yuen KY. SARS-CoV-2 induces a more robust innate immune response and replicates less efficiently than SARS-CoV in the human intestines: an ex vivo study with implications on pathogenesis of COVID-19. Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2020 Oct 1;S2352-345X(20)30160-0. [IF: 8.797]

22. Zhang BZ*, Chu H*# (co-first, co-corresponding author), Han S*, Shuai H*, Deng J, Hu YF, Gong HR, Lee AC, Zou Z, Yau T, Wu W, Hung IF, Chan JF, Yuen KY#, Huang JD#. SARS-CoV-2 infects human neural progenitor cells and brain organoids. Cell Res. 2020 Aug 4:1-4. [IF: 46.297]

23. Shuai H*, Chu H* (co-first author), Hou Y*, Yang D, Wang Y, Hu B, Huang X, Zhang X, Chai Y, Cai JP, Chan JF, Yuen KY. Differential immune activati¬on profile of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV infection in human lung and intestinal cells: implications for treatment with IFN-β and IFN inducer. J Infect. 2020 Jul 21:S0163-4453(20)30490-4. [IF: 38.637]

24. Zhang AJ*, Lee AC*, Chu H* (co-first author), Chan JF, Fan Z, Li C, Liu F, Chen Y, Yuan S, Poon VK, Chan CC, Cai JP, Wu KL, Sridhar S, Chan YS, Yuen KY. SARS-CoV-2 infects and damages the mature and immature olfactory sensory neurons of hamsters. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Jul 15:ciaa995. [IF: 20.999]

25. Yang D*, Chu H* (co-first author), Hou Y, Chai Y, Shuai H, Lee AC, Zhang X, Wang Y, Hu B, Huang X, Yuen TT, Cai JP, Zhou J, Yuan S, Zhang AJ, Chan JF, Yuen KY. Attenuated interferon and pro-inflammatory response in SARS-CoV-2-infected human dendritic cells is associated with viral antagonism of STAT1 phosphorylation. J Infect Dis. 2020 Jun 21:jiaa356. [IF: 7.759]

26. Chu H*, Yuen TT*, Chik KK, Yuan S, Shuai H, Zou Z, Wang Y, Zhu Z, Yang D, Poon VK, Chan CC, Zhou J, Yin F, Kok KH, Yuen KY, Chan JF. Targeting the inositol-requiring enzyme-1 pathway efficiently reverts Zika virus-induced neurogenesis and spermatogenesis marker perturbations. ACS Infect Dis. 2020 May 21. doi: 10.1021/acsinfecdis.9b00526. [IF: 5.578]

27. Chu H*, Chan JF*, Yuen TT*, Shuai H*, Yuan S, Wang Y, Hu B, Yip CC, Tsang JO, Huang X, Chai Y, Yang D, Hou Y, Chik KK, Zhang X, Fung AY, Tsoi HW, Cai JP, Chan WM, Ip JD, Chu AW, Zhou J, Lung DC, Kok KH, To KK, Tsang OT, Chan KH, Yuen KY. Comparative tropism, replication kinetics, and cell damage profiling of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV with implications for clinical manifestations, transmissibility, and laboratory studies of COVID-19: an observational study. Lancet Microbe. 2020 April 21. doi: 10.1016/S2666-5247(20)30004-5. [IF: 86.208]

28. Chu H*, Chan JF*, Wang Y*, Yuen TT*, Chai Y, Hou Y, Shuai H, Yang D, Hu B, Huang X, Zhang X, Cai JP, Zhou J, Yuan S, Kok KH, To KK, Chan IH, Zhang AJ, Sit KY, Au WK, Yuen KY. Comparative replication and immune activation profiles of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV in human lungs: an ex vivo study with implications for the pathogenesis of COVID-19. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Apr 9. pii: ciaa410. [IF: 20.999]

29. Zhang X*, Chu H* (co-first author), Wen L, Shuai H, Yang D, Wang Y, Hou Y, Zhu Z, Yuan S, Yin F, Chan JF, Yuen KY. Competing endogenous RNA network profiling reveals novel host dependency factors required for MERS-CoV propagation. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2020 Dec;9(1):733-746. [IF: 19.568]

30. Chan JF*, Kok KH*, Zhu Z*, Chu H* (co-first author), To KK, Yuan S, Yuen KY. Genomic characterization of the 2019 novel human-pathogenic coronavirus isolated from a patient with atypical pneumonia after visiting Wuhan. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2020 Jan 28;9(1):221-236. [IF: 19.568]

31. Chan JF*, Yuan S*, Kok KH*, To KK*, Chu H* (co-first author), Yang J, Xing F, Liu J, Yip CC, Poon RW, Tsoi HW, Lo SK, Chan KH, Poon VK, Chan WM, Ip JD, Cai JP, Cheng VC, Chen H, Hui CK, Yuen KY. A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster. Lancet. 2020 Feb 15;395(10223):514-523. [IF: 202.731]


32. Yan B*, Zou Z*, Chu H* (co-first author), Chan G, Tsang JO, Lai PM, Yuan S, Yip CC, Yin F, Kao RY, Sze KH, Lau SK, Chan JF, Yuen KY. Lipidomic profiling reveals significant perturbations of intracellular lipid homeostasis in enterovirus-infected cells. Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Nov 26;20(23). pii: E5952. [IF: 6.208]

33. Zhao X*, Chu H* (co-first author), Wong BH*, Chiu MC, Wang D, Li C, Liu X, Yang D, Poon VK, Cai J, Chan JF, To KK, Zhou J, Yuen KY. Activation of C-type lectin receptor and (RIG)-I-like receptors contributes to proinflammatory response in MERS coronavirus infected macrophages. J Infect Dis. 2019 Sep 28. pii: jiz483. [IF: 7.759]

34. Lee ACY*, Zhang AJX*, Chu H* (co-first author), Li C, Zhu H, Mak WWN, Chen Y, Kok KH, To KKW, Yuen KY. H7N9 influenza A virus activation of necroptosis in human monocytes links innate and adaptive immune responses. Cell Death Dis. 2019 Jun 5;10(6):442. [IF: 9.685]

35. Zhu Z*, Chu H* (co-first author), Wen L, Yuan S, Chik KK, Yuen TT, Yip CC, Wang D, Zhou J, Yin F, Jin DY, Kok, KH, Yuen KY, Chan JF. SUMO modification of the non-structural protein 5 of Zika virus via binding with a conserved N-terminal SUMO-interacting motif supports virus replication and suppresses type I interferon signaling. Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Jan 17;20(2). [IF: 6.208]

36. Yan B*, Chu H* (co-first author), Yang D*, Sze KH*, Lai PM, Yuan S, Shuai H, Wang Y, Kao RY, Chan JF, Yuen KY. Characterization of the lipidomic profile of human coronavirus-infected cells: implications on lipid metabolism remodeling upon coronavirus replication. Viruses. 2019 Jan 16;11(1). [IF: 5.818]

37. Yuan S*, Chu H* (co-first author), Chan JF*, Ye ZW, Wen L, Yan B, Lai PM, Huang J, Tee KM, Chen D, Li C, Zhao X, Yang D, Chiu MC, Yip CC, Poon VK, Chan CC, Sze KH, Zhou J, Chan IH, To KK, Kao RY, Lau JY, Perlman S, Yuen KY. Targeting the SREBP-dependent lipidomic reprogramming by virus infection for broad-spectrum therapeutic intervention. Nat Commun. 2019 Jan 10;10(1):120. [IF: 17.694]


38. Zhang K, Li C, Luo Y, Wen L, Wang D, Wong BH, Zhao X, Chiu MC, Yuan S, Ye Z, Zhao H, Zhang XM, He J, Bose M, Henrickson KJ, Huang JD, Zheng B, Chu H# (co-corresponding author), Zhou J#. Establishment and characterization of a lethal aged mouse model of human respiratory syncytial virus. Antiviral Res. 2018 Nov 29;161:125-133. [IF: 10.103]

39. Chan JF*, Zhu Z*, Chu H* (co-first author), Yuan S, Chik KK, Chan CC, Poon VK, Yip CC, Zhang X, Tsang JO, Zou Z, Tee KM, Shuai H, Lu G, Yuen KY. The celecoxib derivative kinase inhibitor AR-12 (OSU-03012) inhibits Zika virus via down-regulation of the PI3K/Akt pathway and protects Zika =irus-infected A129 mice: a host targeting treatment strategy. Antiviral Res. 2018 Dec;160:38-47. [IF: 10.103]

40. Chu H*, Chan CM*, X Zhang*, Wang Y, Yuan S, Zhou J, Au-Yueng RK, Sze KH, Yang D, Shuai H, Hou Y, Li C, Zhao X, Poon VK, Leung SP, Yeung ML, Yan J, Lu G, Jin DY, Gao GF, Chan JF, Yuen KY. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus and bat coronavirus HKU9 both can utilize GRP78 for attachment onto host cells. J Biol Chem. 2018 Jul 27;293(30):11709-11726. [IF: 5.486]


41. Ye ZW, Yuan S, Poon KM, Wen L, Yang D, Sun Z, Li C, Hu M, Shuai H, Zhou J, Zhang MY, Zheng BJ, Chu H# (co-corresponding author) and Yuen KY#. Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity epitopes on the hemagglutinin head-region of pandemic H1N1 influenza virus play detrimental roles in H1N1-infected mice. Front Immunol. 2017 Mar 21;8:317. [IF: 8.786]

42. Hu M, Yuan S, Ye ZW, Singh K, Li C, Shuai H, Fai N, Chow BK, Chu H# (co-corresponding author), Zheng BJ#. PAN substitutions A37S, A37S/I61T and A37S/V63I attenuate the replication of H7N7 influenza A virus by impairing the polymerase and endonuclease activities. J Gen Virol. 2017 Mar;98(3):364-373. [IF: 5.141]


43. Hu M, Yuan S, Zhang K, Singh K, Ma Q, Zhou J, Chu H# (co-corresponding author), Zheng BJ#. PB2 substitutions V598T/I increase the virulence of H7N9 influenza A virus in mammals. Virology. 2016 Nov 24;501:92-101. [IF: 3.513]

44. Chan CM*, Chu H* (co-first author), Wang Y, Wong BH, Zhao X, Zhou J, Yang D, Leung SP, Chan JF, Yeung ML, Yan J, Lu G, Gao GF, Yuen KY. Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5) is an important surface attachment factor facilitating the entry of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). J Virol. 2016 Sep 29;90(20):9114-27. [IF: 6.549]

45. Chu H, Zhou J, Wong BH, Li C, Chan JF, Cheng ZS, Yang D, Wang D, Lee AC, Li C, Yeung ML, Cai J, Chan IH, Ho WK, To KK, Zheng BJ, Yao Y, Qin C, Yuen KY. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus efficiently infects human primary T lymphocytes and activates both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways. J Infect Dis. 2016 Mar 15;213(6):904-14. [IF: 7.759]


46. Chu H*, Zhou J*, Wong BH, Li C, Cheng ZS, Lin X, Poon VK, Sun T, Lau CC, Chan JF, To KK, Chan KH, Lu L, Zheng BJ, Yuen KY. Productive replication of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in monocyte-derived dendritic cells modulates innate immune response. Virology. 2014 Apr;454-455:197-205. [IF: 3.513]

47. Zhou J*, Chu H* (co-first author), Li C, Wong BH, Cheng ZS, Poon VK, Sun T, Lau CC, Wong KK, Chan JY, Chan JF, To KK, Chan KH, Zheng BJ, Yuen KY. Active replication of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus and aberrant induction of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in human macrophages: implications for pathogenesis. J Infect Dis. 2014 May;209(9):1331-42. [IF: 7.759]


48. Chu H, Wang JJ, Qi M, Yoon JJ, Chen X, Wen X, Hammonds J, Ding L, Spearman P. Tetherin/BST-2 is essential for the formation of the intracellular virus-containing compartment in HIV-infected macrophages. Cell Host Microbe. 2012 Sep 13;12(3):360-72. [IF: 31.316]

49. Chu H, Wang JJ, Qi M, Yoon JJ, Wen X, Chen X, Ding L, Spearman P. The intracellular virus-containing compartments in primary human macrophages are largely inaccessible to antibodies and small molecules. PLoS One. 2012;7(5):e35297. [IF: 3.752]


50. Chu H, Wang JJ, Spearman P. Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 gag and host vesicular trafficking pathways. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2009;339:67-84. Review. [IF: 4.737]